Publications

2022

Sustainability

Title: Marine Protected Area in Southeast Asia: A Brief Look into the Current Landscape, Key Benefits, and Challenges

Reference: Tang, S., Teow, H. H., Ahmed, P. K., Nair, M. S., & Vaithilingam, S. (2022). Marine protected area in Southeast Asia: A brief look into the current landscape, key benefits, and challenge (Working Paper No. IGSC WP 2022-001). Sunway Institute for Global Strategy and Competitiveness.

Keywords: Southeast Asia, marine protected area, area-based conservation measures, biodiversity, marine ecosystems

Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview on the current landscape of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world: with just 2.5% of global marine surface area, the region harbors more than 30% coral reefs, 50% of seagrass species, and possesses the highest diversity of coral reef fish. However, as a global repository of marine biodiversity and endemism, this region has also been rated as one of the most biotically threatened. To address the losses in marine biodiversity and habitats, MPAs have been increasingly adopted worldwide, including in the SEA. Nonetheless, there exist several problems in the implementation of MPAs in the region. For one, the growth of MPAs in the SEA has been moderately slow compared to other regions. In addition, the question arises as to whether the MPAs in the region are effectively addressing biodiversity needs or are mere “paper parks” piously declared but achieve minimal results in reality. To investigate this issue, the paper highlights issues affecting MPAs’ success, including the lack of management effectiveness, law enforcement, and financial capacity. In addition, the relationship with local communities in SEA’s MPAs is a pertinent issue, as locals play important roles in enabling the biological and socio-economic success of MPAs.

However, these biodiversity hotspots have already lost more than 90% of their original habitats to anthropogenic activities such as deforestation for socio-economic development and unsustainable use of natural resources. To minimize the anthropogenic impacts, terrestrial protected areas have long been designated to conserve biodiversity and protect biologically important terrestrial areas in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, despite being protected, some protected areas are not efficiently managed. For example, many have failed to protect and conserve certain endemic species. Poor representation of habitats and lack of connectivity between terrestrial protected areas also serve as other problems with the current terrestrial protected area. Furthermore, some terrestrial protected areas are less effective than other unprotected areas at reducing deforestation and conserving biodiversity. As such, remedial measures are urgently needed to address the shortfalls of these protected areas to ensure the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem services.


Sustainability

 

Title: Terrestrial Biodiversity and Protected Areas in Southeast Asia

Reference: Teow, H. H., Tang, S., Ahmed, P. K., Nair, M. S., & Vaithilingam, S. (2022) Terrestrial biodiversity and protected areas in Southeast Asia (Working Paper No. IGSC WP 2022-002). Sunway Institute for Global Strategy and Competitiveness.

Keywords: Southeast Asia, Biodiversity hotspots, Biodiversity loss, Terrestrial biodiversity,Terrestrial protected areas

Abstract: This working paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding on terrestrial biodiversity and protected areas in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia consists of a wide array of terrestrial biomes that comprise natural ecosystems rich in biodiversity, such as lowland evergreen forests, montane evergreen forests, tropical rainforests, semi-deciduous forests, limestone karst formations, mossy forests, pine forests, heath forests, monsoon forests, and grasslands. These ecosystems are situated within the four key globally important biodiversity hotspots in Southeast Asia, namely Indo-Burma, Sundaland, the Philippines, and Wallacea, which house around 20% of the world’s flora and fauna species.

However, these biodiversity hotspots have already lost more than 90% of their original habitats to anthropogenic activities such as deforestation for socio-economic development and unsustainable use of natural resources. To minimize the anthropogenic impacts, terrestrial protected areas have long been designated to conserve biodiversity and protect biologically important terrestrial areas in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, despite being protected, some protected areas are not efficiently managed. For example, many have failed to protect and conserve certain endemic species. Poor representation of habitats and lack of connectivity between terrestrial protected areas also serve as other problems with the current terrestrial protected area. Furthermore, some terrestrial protected areas are less effective than other unprotected areas at reducing deforestation and conserving biodiversity. As such, remedial measures are urgently needed to address the shortfalls of these protected areas to ensure the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem services.


  • Ng, J.W.J, Vaithilingam, S., Nair, M., Hwang,L.A. and Musa, K.I. (2022), Key predictors of Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Malaysia: An Integrated Framework, Plos-One, 17(50), doi.org 0268926
  • Vaithilingam, S., Nair, M., Macharia, M. and Venkatesh, V. (2022), Mobile communication and use behavior of the urban poor in a developing country: A field study in Malaysia, International Journal of Information Management 63, 102440.
  • Pradhan, R.P., Arvin, M.A., Nair, M.S., and Hall, J.H. (2022), The dynamics between financial market development, taxation propensity and economic growth: a study of OECD and non-OECD countries, Quality & Quantity, 56 (3), 1503-1534.
  • Pradhan, R.P., Arvin, M.A., Nair, M.S., Hall, J.H and Bennet, S.E. (2022), Institutional development in an information-driven economy: can ICTs enhance economic growth for low- and lower middle-income countries? Information Technology for Development, 1-20.
  • Nasir, N.M., Nair, M.S, Ahmed, P.K. (2022), Environmental sustainability and contemporary Islamic society: a Shariah perspective, Asian Academy of Management Journal, accepted for publication 3 Aug 2022.
  • Pradhan, R.P., Nair, M.S., Arvin, M.B., Ali, M.S.B., (2022), Intertemporal linkages between Government Expenditure and Corruption in a Digital Economy: A Panel Granger Causality Framework, in Digitization and Economic Development, 1-27, Routledge (Book chapter).
  • Nair, M., Vaithilingam, S., Ahmed, P.K., Hwang, L.A., Ng, JWJ (2022), Future-Proofing the Talent of Malaysia’s Indian B40 Community for the New Economy: A Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Framework, in Malaysian Indians: Education, Equity and Reimagined Priorities, editors Rajendran Nagappan and Hena Mukerjee, Routledge, UK. Forthcoming (Book chapter).

2021

  • Nair, M., Arvin, M.B., Pradhan, R.P and Bahmani, S. (2021). Is higher economic growth possible through better institutional quality and a lower carbon footprint? Evidence from developing countries, Renewable Energy. 167, April, 132-145.
  • Hwang, LA, Vaithilingam, S., Nair, M., Ng, JWJ, (2021), Nurturing academic enthusiasm and creativity among children from vulnerable groups: the role of computers, Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-20.
  • Nasir, N.M., Nair, M.S, Ahmed, P.K. (2021), Institutional isomorphism and environmental sustainability: a new framework from the Shariah perspective, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23 (9), 13555-13568.
  • Arvin, M.B., Pradhan, R.P. and Nair, M. (2021), Uncovering interlinks among ICT connectivity and penetration, trade openness, foreign direct investment and economic growth: The case of the G-20 countries, Telematics and Informatics, Volume 60, July, 101567, Elsevier.
  • Pradhan, R.P., Arvin, M.B. and Nair, M. (2021), Urbanization, transportation infrastructure, ICT and economic growth: A temporal causal analysis, Cities, 115, 103213.
  • Pradhan, R., Arvin, M.B, Nair, M., Hall, J. and Bennett, S. (2021), “Sustainable economic development in India: the dynamics between financial inclusion, ICT development and Eocnomic Growth,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 169, August 2o21 120758 , Elsevier.
  • Arvin, M.B., Pradhan, R.P.and Nair, M. (2021), Are there links between institutional quality, government expenditure, tax revenue and economic growth? Economic Analysis and Policy, 70, 313-333.
  • Pradhan,R.P., Arvin, M.B., Nair, M., Bennett, S.E., Bahmani, S. (2021), Competitiveness and Economic Growth of Asian Countries, in editors Bahmani-Oskooee, M., Bahmani, S., Kanitpong, T., Asian Countries: Economic, Political and Social Issues, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA., 1-36.
  • Vaithilingam, S., Teh PL, Ahmed, P.K., Ho, S.J., Nair, M.S., and Tan, C.P. (2021) Sustainable Smart Transport System: Through the Lens of a Smart City in an Emerging Country, Proceedings of the International Conference of Electronic Business, Volume 21, 455-462, IEB21, Nanjing, China, December 3-7, 2021. ceb.johogo.com/proceedings/2021/ICEB_2021_paper_36_full.pdf

 

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